Fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) growths in or on the women’s uterus. Depending upon their location, they may cause heavy menstrual bleeding, abdominal pain, period pain or other symptoms. Fibroids are made up of muscle cells and connective tissue. Their size, shape and location vary. Fibroids are mainly categorized based on where they are located.
In this article we are going to discuss submucosal fibroid, which are located directly under the lining of the womb. Inner side of the uterus is also called submucosal layers (from which submucosal fibroids name is derived). These fibroids are attached to the uterus through a long stalk which proves to be quite painful during the removal process.
Apart from the inner lining of the uterus, these fibroids are also found in endometrial cavity. Submucosal fibroids are very rare and there is only 5% chances that they will occur in women. When they are enlarged, they blockage the fallopian tubes. Submucosal fibroids are also related with infertility.
Causes of submucosal fibroid
Root cause and triggers of fibroids are still unknown to medical science, but several factors may influence their formation:
Estrogen and progesterone are the hormones produced by the ovaries. They cause the uterine lining to regenerate during each menstrual cycle and may stimulate the growth of fibroids.
2. Family history
Fibroids may run in the family. If your mother, sister, or grandmother has a history of this condition, you may develop it as well.
Pregnancy increases the production of estrogen and progesterone in your body. Fibroids may develop and grow rapidly while you’re pregnant.
Symptoms of Submucosal Fibroid
Like other types of fibroids, submucosal fibroids also associated with abnormalities in the menstrual bleed which accompanies heavy flow. Sometimes, periods may last for a longer duration and cause trouble. Some other common symptoms of submucosal fibroid include:
- Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods
- Pelvic pain
- Severe abdominal cramps during menstrual periods
- Bleeding between menstrual periods
- Bleeding, even after you have reached the menopausal phase
- Back pain
- Discomfort in the lower abdomen
Submucosal Fibroid and Pregnancy
Fibroids causes blockage of fallopian tube which can cause infertility problems. When the fallopian tube is blocked, sperms are prevented from reaching the egg, hence fertilization of eggs become difficult. Submucosal fibroids can increase the uterine cavity, due to which sperm takes more time to travel up to the egg which can delay conception and pregnancy.
The problems created by submucosal fibroid which can lead to infertility are:
- Distortion of the cavity in uterus
- Sperm migration
- Hampering of the blood supply to endometrium
- Ovum transport
- Inflammation, atrophy and hyperplasia
Apart from causing infertility issues, submucosal fibroids may also lead to complications during pregnancy. Large size fibroids can cause congestion in the uterus, which leave no space for the fetus to develop. This can lead to miscarriage and several deformities. During the post-partum phase, it can also lead to hemorrhage which can cause some complications.